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Now we are going to review the Confined Space Regulations 1997. We are going to break it down into the various aspects. But let us initially do a summary of the regulations. There is three parts to it. Part one states, "Prohibit entry into a confined space." That is the first line. Why do they say, "Prohibit entry?" Well, as you can imagine, that is the safest thing to do, do not do it. But that is not the case for many others who have to do the job of entering and exiting the confined space. But then it goes on to state, "unless there is no other reasonably practical method to carry out the work." So the reasoning is, do not go there, prohibit entry. We have to do some initial survey. There has to be a justification to then say to ourselves, "I have got no choice, I need to enter. I have looked at every other practical method to do so, and I have now got to enter that particular confined space." The second part is, "If I am going to enter the confined space, it must be done in accordance with a safe system of work." Now, what do we describe safe as work of being? Well, one example would be a risk assessment. A method statement permits to work, and a whole range of other things would all fall under the banner being a safe system of work.

The third aspect, it says, "Require adequate arrangement made for the rescue of any person in the event of an emergency." This third part has been a challenge for many organizations. What is an adequate arrangement? Why is it the employer's responsibility to have that emergency plan in place? Surely all you got to do is wait for the emergency services and let them deal with it. Well, that is not the case. It is the employer's responsibility to have the emergency arrangement. Why? Because unfortunately, the finest of service cannot get there quick enough. There are occasions when the emergency needs to be done within two to three minutes to ensure that person survives. So you on site are the best ones to deal with that emergency. Later on, there is a whole section purely on an emergency rescue. Let us now move over to, "How do we define what a confined space actually is?" So let us look at the guidance. It starts off by saying in the regulations that, "A confined space means any place, by virtue, of enclosed nature." So that is the first part. In the updated version of the document, The Approved Code of Practice 2014, in brackets, it now puts the words, "Not enclosed entirely." So for example, it could be something that is open topped. But then we have the second part, it says, "Where there arises a reasonably foreseeable specified risk." We have a few more guidance, and it states that "The risk is anything where this could be serious injury or death."

Then we have part A, which says, "It must be big enough to go inside and do an actual assigned work." Next, "It must have a limited or restricted means of entry and exit." And finally, "It is not designed for continuous employee occupancy." And that is it. That is the only guidance we are given on making that decision: Is it a confined space or is it not? That being the case, can not we see how it can be a bit of a grey area? It is not easy to make that decision. Now think about it from an employer point of view. Imagine a large factory. There will be some things that you will say, "Yes, that is definitely a confined space". But there may be other things they come across where they are not sure. What usually happens though, because it seems to be the safest option, is just to say, "It is a confined space." So let us think about some examples then. Let us think of, first of all, a chamber. I am sure we would agree that would a confined space. A tank might be. Silos. A vat. Pits. Trenches. Sewers. Drains. Flues. Even unventilated or even a poorly ventilated room may well fall under the confined space regulations. What we need to do now is to look at those specified risk; A number, and actually named, in the document. So let us now go through each of them one by one, and I will add some additional information to each of these risks.